Flow Measurement & Control


Leak detection for energy transition

August 2023 Flow Measurement & Control

With a shift from fossil-based systems to renewable energy sources also comes a shift for transportation. This is also true for pipeline leak detection systems.

Pipelines transport 100% hydrogen or a blend with natural gas. CO2 can be transported as a gas or liquid, or in a supercritical state. As a result, the leak detection system needs to be able to work with these different mixtures and phases.

For classical leak detection systems this is a problem. Negative-pressure wave leak detection systems are affected by damping in gas. Classical statistical systems are affected by compressibility and linepack changes. This leads to long detection times and high thresholds. The systems react with a loss of sensitivity, or in the worst case, with false alarms. Real-time transient model technology (RTTM)-based systems consider all the different products and pipeline properties in their calculations. However, if the fluid cannot be accurately modelled by the system this leads to false results.

The Extended RTTM (E-RTTM) system was developed by KROHNE, an established supplier of measuring solutions to the pipeline industry, with over 450 installations and more than 35 years of experience in pipeline leak detection and localisation systems. It combines a feature generation module with leak signature analysis using leak pattern detection. Any disadvantages are compensated for by signature analysis. E-RTTM makes the system less sensitive to inaccuracies in RTTM calculations. Thus, inaccuracies arising from challenging pipeline conditions, product parameters or mixtures like hydrogen blends become less important. KROHNE’s PipePatrol E-RTTM is a leading technology for the monitoring of pipelines. The RTTM is used for filtering purposes, and leaks are detected by pattern recognition techniques. The technology is applicable to liquid, gas and slurry applications.

An E-RTTM leak detection system creates a virtual image of a pipeline and uses standard process instrumentation for flow, temperature and pressure measurements. The hydraulic profiles along the virtual pipeline are calculated from the measured pressure and temperature values. The model compares the calculated flow values with the actual values from the flowmeters. If the model detects a discrepancy, the leak signature analysis module determines whether it was caused by changing pipeline operation, an instrument error, or a leak. The smallest detectable leak rates are typically 0,5% and below. Leak detection time is in seconds, and confirmation within minutes. The false alarm rate is exceptionally low, and leak localisation is best-in-class.

Leak detection system for hydrogen

KROHNE’s leak detection system was installed on a power-to-gas project which was the world’s first demonstration plant for storing wind energy in the natural gas grid. As the leading leak detection system provider in Germany, KROHNE had been recommended by an independent third-party authority to be the supplier for the leak detection system. The E-RTTM technology was selected due to its ability to measure a gas, even in small leak quantities. This was the first power-to-gas application equipped with a PipePatrol leak detection system. Since then, PipePatrol has been installed on many more hydrogen pipelines.

Leak detection system for carbon capture

Natural gas from the Gorgon gas field contains around 14% naturally occurring CO2. Prior to converting the natural gas to LNG, the CO2 is removed. To minimise the environmental footprint, the separated CO2 is injected in a storage formation. A 7 km-long pipeline transports the CO2 from the LNG liquefaction plant to the CO2 injection wells. The requirement was to supply a pipeline leak detection system that provided timely and accurate leak information for the pipeline segments between the LNG plant and drill centres. KROHNE provided the E-RTTM based leak detection system. The project involved unique conditions such as the properties of CO2 in a supercritical phase, and flow measurements done by orifice plates with limited rangeability.

For more information contact KROHNE SA, +27 11 314 1391, b.elliot2@krohne.com, www.krohne.com/pipepatrol




Share this article:
Share via emailShare via LinkedInPrint this page

Further reading:

Ultra-compact mass flow meters with advanced transmitters
Emerson Automation Solutions Flow Measurement & Control
Emerson has introduced the Micro Motion G-Series line of Coriolis mass flow and density meters, the most compact dual-tube Coriolis mass flow meters on the market. They offer the same level of quality and reliability as standard designs, but in a much smaller and lighter form factor.

Read more...
Flow measurement transmitters with IO-link interface
Senseca Flow Measurement & Control
Senseca has introduced the enhanced OMNIPLUS range of transmitters that feature an intelligent IO-Link interface.

Read more...
Optimisation of alkaline electrolysers
Samson Controls Flow Measurement & Control
his application study relates to the use of a smart meter valve in alkaline electrolysers, and is based on proven experience with one of the biggest hydrogen electrolyser producers in the world. The project proves that the smart meter valve’s added functionality creates an ideal setup in alkaline electrolysers for reducing cost and improving functionality and system performance.

Read more...
Preventing spills and improving operational efficiency
Flow Measurement & Control
In an industry where every spill carries a hefty price tag, Point Energy Partners found that the manual and low-tech systems at their saltwater disposal sites were a significant problem.

Read more...
Accurate flowmeter for oil & gas
Endress+Hauser South Africa Flow Measurement & Control
Promass Q, the high-tech Coriolis flowmeter from Endress+Hauser, is now also available for larger pipe sizes with maximum flow rates between 850 and 2400 tph.

Read more...
Optimising CIP processes with precision instrumentation
Endress+Hauser South Africa Flow Measurement & Control
Many food and beverage manufacturers encounter challenges with CIP processes that take too long. Have you considered exploring potential solutions to address these issues?

Read more...
How predictive maintenance will help tackle water scarcity
ABB South Africa Flow Measurement & Control
The water industry is facing increasing pressure to optimise treatment processes and address the impending global water crisis. ABB’s global product line manager, Krishna Prashanth suggests how the integration of smart instrumentation and predictive maintenance can ensure the highest quality treatment of water.

Read more...
Flowmeters with faster and more reliable data transmission
ABB South Africa Flow Measurement & Control
ABB has launched the CoriolisMaster and ProcessMaster flowmeters, which can be powered over the same Ethernet cable used for data transmission, eliminating the need for separate cabling.

Read more...
Ice cold optimisation
Turck Banner Southern Africa Flow Measurement & Control
A well-known industrial company in China specialises in the research, development and production of high-tech materials and special industrial furnaces for various fields and applications. To ensure the safe and efficient operation of the furnaces, the flow and temperature of the cooling water and the energy consumption must be constantly monitored and controlled. Turck’s FS+ flow sensors are ideal for this application as they can monitor the temperature of the cooling medium in addition to the flow.

Read more...
How wet steam undermines boiler efficiency
Endress+Hauser South Africa Flow Measurement & Control
The Endress+Hauser team understands the daily challenges and demands placed upon energy and utility managers across the spectrum of steam generation, distribution and consumption activities. Its global team is committed to working with its partners to overcome these complexities and particularly those that challenge a safe, economic and sustainable source of steam energy production and delivery.

Read more...